Methodological and statistical approaches for the assessment of foot shape using three-dimensional foot scanning: a scoping review

ALLAN, Jamie J., MUNTEANU, Shannon E., BONANNO, Daniel R., BULDT, Andrew K., CHOPPIN, Simon, BULLAS, Alice, PEARCE, Natalie and MENZ, Hylton B. (2023). Methodological and statistical approaches for the assessment of foot shape using three-dimensional foot scanning: a scoping review. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 16 (1): 24.

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Objective: The objectives of this study were to: (i) review and provide a narrative synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) foot surface scanning methodological and statistical analysis protocols, and (ii) develop a set of recommendations for standardising the reporting of 3D foot scanning approaches. Methods: A systematic search of the SCOPUS, ProQuest, and Web of Science databases were conducted to identify papers reporting 3D foot scanning protocols and analysis techniques. To be included, studies were required to be published in English, have more than ten participants, and involve the use of static 3D surface scans of the foot. Papers were excluded if they reported two-dimensional footprints only, 3D scans that did not include the medial arch, dynamic scans, or derived foot data from a full body scan. Results: The search yielded 78 relevant studies from 17 different countries. The available evidence showed a large variation in scanning protocols. The subcategories displaying the most variation included scanner specifications (model, type, accuracy, resolution, capture duration), scanning conditions (markers, weightbearing, number of scans), foot measurements and definitions used, and statistical analysis approaches. A 16-item checklist was developed to improve the consistency of reporting of future 3D scanning studies. Conclusion: 3D foot scanning methodological and statistical analysis protocol consistency and reporting has been lacking in the literature to date. Improved reporting of the included subcategories could assist in data pooling and facilitate collaboration between researchers. As a result, larger sample sizes and diversification of population groups could be obtained to vastly improve the quantification of foot shape and inform the development of orthotic and footwear interventions and products.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ** From Springer Nature via Jisc Publications Router ** Licence for this article: ** Acknowledgements: At the time this review was conducted, HBM was a National Health and Medical Research Council Senior Research Fellow (ID: 1135995). AKB and DRB are currently Deputy Editor and Associate Editor, respectively of J Foot Ankle Res. It is journal policy to remove editors from the peer review processes for papers they have co-authored. **Journal IDs: eissn 1757-1146 **Article IDs: publisher-id: s13047-023-00617-z; manuscript: 617 **History: collection 12-2023; online 27-04-2023; published_online 27-04-2023; registration 22-03-2023; accepted 21-03-2023; submitted 21-12-2022
Uncontrolled Keywords: Review
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SWORD Depositor: Colin Knott
Depositing User: Colin Knott
Date Deposited: 02 May 2023 14:20
Last Modified: 11 Oct 2023 15:31

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