Research and development in optical biosensors for determination of toxic environmental pollutants.

TSARGORODSKA, Anna. (2007). Research and development in optical biosensors for determination of toxic environmental pollutants. Doctoral, Sheffield Hallam University (United Kingdom)..

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Abstract

The detection of pollutants (such as toxins, heavy metal ions, and pesticides) in water and food plays an important role in human health and safety regulations. Different optical biosensing techniques enabling the monitoring of these compounds were chosen for this study. Low molecular weight (LMW) environmental toxins, such as simazine, atrazine, nonylphenol and T-2 mycotoxin were registered with the methods of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and the recently developed total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE). The immune assay approach was exploited for in situ registration of the above toxins with specific antibodies immobilized onto a gold surface via a polyelectrolyte layer using electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) technique. TIRE showed a higher sensitivity than the SPR technique. The obtained responses of the TIRE method were higher than estimated for the immune binding of single molecules of nonylphenol or T-2 mycotoxin. The mechanism of the binding of large aggregates of these toxins to respective antibodies was suggested as a possible reason for this. The formation of large molecular aggregates of toxin molecules on the surface was later proven by the AFM study.The prototype of the portable sensor array device for water pollution monitoring was based on a SiO[2]/Si[3]n[4] planar waveguide with a sensing window coated with ESA film containing pH sensitive organic chromophore molecules and different enzymes (namely, urease, acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase) adsorbed on a disposable nylon membrane. The sensor was capable of registration of enzyme reactions as well as their inhibition by traces of some typical water pollutants, such as heavy metal ions Cd[2+], Pb[2+], and Ni[2+], and pesticides imidacloprid and DVDP over a wide range of concentrations (from 1000 ppb down to 0.1 ppb). A portable prototype sensor array device comprises a fan-beam laser diode, a semi-cylindrical lens, a planar waveguide with a three-channel cell attached, and a CCD array photodetector. Dedicated software was developed for CCD image processing and further data analysis with an artificial neural network.The large internal surface area within a small volume, efficient room-temperature visible photoluminescence and biocompatibility of porous silicon (PS) has stimulated recent interest in its applications for sensor development. The method of spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to study in situ the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) into PS. The porosity and amount of adsorbed BSA were determined by fitting the ellipsometric data to the Bruggeman effective medium approximation model. The presence of intermediate adsorbed layers of polyelectrolytes was found to increase protein adsorption.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Additional Information: Thesis (Ph.D.)--Sheffield Hallam University (United Kingdom), 2007.
Research Institute, Centre or Group: Sheffield Hallam Doctoral Theses
Depositing User: EPrints Services
Date Deposited: 10 Apr 2018 17:22
Last Modified: 10 Apr 2018 17:22
URI: http://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/20458

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