Beyond Newton's law of cooling in evaluating magnetic hyperthermia performance: a device-independent procedure †

RUTA, Sergiu, FERNÁNDEZ-AFONSO, Yilian, RANNALA, Samuel E., MORALES, M. Puerto, VEINTEMILLAS-VERDAGUER, Sabino, JONES, Carlton, GUTIÉRREZ, Lucía, CHANTRELL, Roy W. and SERANTES, David (2024). Beyond Newton's law of cooling in evaluating magnetic hyperthermia performance: a device-independent procedure †. Nanoscale Advances.

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Accurate knowledge of the heating performance of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) under AC magnetic fields is critical for the development of hyperthermia-mediated applications. Usually reported in terms of the specific loss power (SLP) obtained from the temperature variation (ΔT) vs. time (t) curve, such an estimate is subjected to a huge uncertainty. Thus, very different SLP values are reported for the same particles when measured on different equipment/in different laboratories. This lack of control clearly hampers the further development of nanoparticle-mediated heat-triggered technologies. Here, we report a device-independent approach to calculate the SLP value of a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles: the SLP is obtained from the analysis of the peak at the AC magnetic field on/off switch of the ΔT(time) curve. The measurement procedure, which itself constitutes a change of paradigm within the field, is based on the heat diffusion equation, which is still valid when the assumptions of Newton's law of cooling are not applicable, as (i) it corresponds to the ideal scenario in which the temperature profiles of the system during heating and cooling are the same; and (ii) it diminishes the role of coexistence of various heat dissipation channels. Such an approach is supported by theoretical and computational calculations to increase the reliability and reproducibility of SLP determination. Furthermore, the new methodological approach is experimentally confirmed, by magnetic hyperthermia experiments performed using 3 different devices located in 3 different laboratories. Furthermore, the application of this peak analysis method (PAM) to a rapid succession of stimulus on/off switches which results in a zigzag-like ΔT(t), which we term the zigzag protocol, allows evaluation of possible variations of the SLP values with time or temperature.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ** Embargo end date: 25-06-2024 ** From Royal Society of Chemistry via Jisc Publications Router ** Licence for this article starting on 25-06-2024: ** Acknowledgements: Authors would like to acknowledge financial support from the following projects: Project PID2021-122508NB-I00 funded by MICIU/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and FEDER, UE, Projects PID2019-109514RJ-100 and PID2020-13480RB-I00 funded by MICIU/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and project CNS2023-144321 funded by MICIU/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and NextGenerationEU/PRTR. Xunta de Galicia is acknowledged for project ED431F 2022/005 (to D.S.). AEI is also acknowledged for the Ramón y Cajal grant RYC2020-029822-I to D.S. The authors would like to acknowledge Fondo Social del Gobierno de Aragón (grupo DGA E15-23R) and the use of the Advanced Microscopy Laboratory (Universidad de Zaragoza), for access to their instrumentation and expertise. We acknowledge the Centro de Supercomputacion de Galicia (CESGA) for computational resources. SR would like to acknowledge the Sheffield Hallam University Beowulf Cluster for computational resources. Authors would also like to thank Lise Grüner Hanson and Cathrine Frandsen for fruitful discussions about this work. **Journal IDs: eissn 2516-0230 **Article IDs: publisher-id: d4na00383g **History: published_online 25-06-2024; accepted 23-06-2024; submitted 08-05-2024
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SWORD Depositor: Colin Knott
Depositing User: Colin Knott
Date Deposited: 08 Jul 2024 14:14
Last Modified: 08 Jul 2024 14:15

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