The Interplay of Dysregulated pH and Electrolyte Imbalance in Cancer.

ALFAROUK, Khalid O, AHMED, Samrein, AHMED, Ahmed, ELLIOTT, Robert L, IBRAHIM, Muntaser E, ALI, Heyam S, WALES, Christian C, NOURWALI, Ibrahim, ALJARBOU, Ahmed N, BASHIR, Adil HH, ALHOUFIE, Sari TS, ALQAHTANI, Saad Saeed, CARDONE, Rosa A, FAIS, Stefano, HARGUINDEY, Salvador and RESHKIN, Stephan J (2020). The Interplay of Dysregulated pH and Electrolyte Imbalance in Cancer. Cancers, 12 (4), p. 898.

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Cancer cells and tissues have an aberrant regulation of hydrogen ion dynamics driven by a combination of poor vascular perfusion, regional hypoxia, and increased the flux of carbons through fermentative glycolysis. This leads to extracellular acidosis and intracellular alkalinization. Dysregulated pH dynamics influence cancer cell biology, from cell transformation and tumorigenesis to proliferation, local growth, invasion, and metastasis. Moreover, this dysregulated intracellular pH (pHi) drives a metabolic shift to increased aerobic glycolysis and reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, referred to as the Warburg effect, or Warburg metabolism, which is a selective feature of cancer. This metabolic reprogramming confers a thermodynamic advantage on cancer cells and tissues by protecting them against oxidative stress, enhancing their resistance to hypoxia, and allowing a rapid conversion of nutrients into biomass to enable cell proliferation. Indeed, most cancers have increased glucose uptake and lactic acid production. Furthermore, cancer cells have very dysregulated electrolyte balances, and in the interaction of the pH dynamics with electrolyte, dynamics is less well known. In this review, we highlight the interconnected roles of dysregulated pH dynamics and electrolytes imbalance in cancer initiation, progression, adaptation, and in determining the programming and reprogramming of tumor cell metabolism.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 1112 Oncology and Carcinogenesis; 3211 Oncology and carcinogenesis
Identification Number:
Page Range: p. 898
SWORD Depositor: Symplectic Elements
Depositing User: Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited: 28 Feb 2024 17:38
Last Modified: 19 Apr 2024 08:00

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