Cohesional behaviours in pyroclastic material and the implications for deposit architecture

WALDING, Nemi, WILLIAMS, Rebecca, ROWLEY, Pete and DOWEY, Natasha (2023). Cohesional behaviours in pyroclastic material and the implications for deposit architecture. Bulletin of Volcanology, 85 (11): 67.

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Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are hazardous, multiphase currents of heterogeneous volcanic material and gas. Moisture (as liquid or gas) can enter a PDC through external (e.g., interaction with bodies of water) or internal (e.g., initial eruptive activity style) processes, and the presence of moisture can be recorded within distinct deposit layers. We use analogue experiments to explore the behaviour of pyroclastic material with increasing addition of moisture from 0.00–10.00% wt. Our results show that (1) the cohesivity of pyroclastic material changes with the addition of small amounts of moisture, (2) small increases in moisture content change the material properties from a free-flowing material to a non-flowable material, (3) changes in moisture can affect the formation of gas escape structures and fluidisation profiles in pyroclastic material, (4) gas flow through a deposit can lead to a moisture profile and resulting mechanical heterogeneity within the deposit and (5) where gas escape structure growth is hindered by cohesivity driven by moisture, pressure can increase and release in an explosive fashion. This work highlights how a suite of varied gas escape morphologies can form within pyroclastic deposits resulting from moisture content heterogeneity, explaining variation in gas escape structures as well as providing a potential mechanism for secondary explosions.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ** From Springer Nature via Jisc Publications Router ** Licence for this article: ** Acknowledgements: N. W. was supported by the EU Horizon 2020 Programme (Project GEOSTICK 712525). We thank Gilbertson et al. (2020) at the University of Bristol for the use of the fluidisation chamber. Ulrich Küppers is thanked for supplying the pyroclastic material used in these experiments. **Journal IDs: eissn 1432-0819 **Article IDs: publisher-id: s00445-023-01682-9; manuscript: 1682 **History: collection 11-2023; online 27-10-2023; published_online 27-10-2023; accepted 11-10-2023; registration 11-10-2023; submitted 20-06-2023
Uncontrolled Keywords: Volcanology, Volcaniclastics, Fluidisation, Gas escape, Secondary explosions, Cohesion
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SWORD Depositor: Colin Knott
Depositing User: Colin Knott
Date Deposited: 31 Oct 2023 17:27
Last Modified: 10 Nov 2023 11:45

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