Thermo-catalytic reforming (TCR) of waste solid grade laminate

DI GRUTTOLA, Francesca, JAHANGIRI, Hessam, SAJDAK, Marcin, MAJEWSKI, Artur, BORELLO, Domenico, HORNUNG, Andreas and OUADI, Miloud (2023). Thermo-catalytic reforming (TCR) of waste solid grade laminate. Journal of Cleaner Production (419): 138276.

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Open Access URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/... (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652623024344/pdfft?md5=db4882d25024e45f068098a688e8e63c&pid=1-s2.0-S0959652623024344-main.pdf)
Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.138276

Abstract

Thermo-catalytic reforming (TCR) is defined as intermediate pyrolysis at moderate temperatures and heating rates with subsequent reforming at elevated temperatures using biochar as a catalyst. TCR experiments were carried out to pyrolyze and subsequently reform Solid Grade Laminate (SGL) waste. SGL is a Kraft paper-derived product and as it is widely used in many applications, high volumes of waste laminate must be disposed of at end of life. To assess TCR for SGL waste treatment, the characterisation of the initial feedstock was accomplished, and it concluded that SGL is suitable to be processed via TCR. The main energy carrier products (char, oil and syngas) were generated by TCR in a 2 kg/h pilot-scale reactor under a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and reforming temperature of 650 °C, respectively. The mass balance analysis demonstrated that 50 wt% of the initial feedstock was comprehensively converted to syngas, 28 wt% to char and 22 wt% to a liquid fraction containing both water (17 wt%) and organics (5 wt%). The oil showed good properties as its HHV reached a value of 32.72 MJ/kg, with low oxygen and sulphur contents. However further processing is required for the fuels to be within suitable limits for use as drop-in fuels for vehicles. The syngas was found to be rich in hydrogen especially when pyrolysis temperature reaches its maximum. Lastly, char revealed a calorific value of 25.94 MJ/kg and was of a stable form of carbon, exhibiting potential as a feedstock for gasification or as a carbon capture and storage medium. TCR of SGL represents novelty as this feedstock has not been tested before in a pyrolysis/reforming system and it is a promising route in an optic of circularity. In waste valorisation, TCR oil has a great opportunity to be used as a fuel or blended with other conventional fuels, thus supporting the shift towards more sustainable mobility.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ** Article version: AM ** From Elsevier via Jisc Publications Router ** Licence for AM version of this article starting on 29-07-2023: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ **Journal IDs: issn 09596526 **History: issued 27-07-2023; accepted 26-07-2023
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2023.138276
SWORD Depositor: Colin Knott
Depositing User: Colin Knott
Date Deposited: 31 Jul 2023 10:45
Last Modified: 10 Aug 2023 14:44
URI: https://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/32204

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