Soiled airway tracheal intubation and the effectiveness of decontamination by paramedics (SATIATED): a randomised controlled manikin study.

PILBERY, Richard and TEARE, M Dawn (2019). Soiled airway tracheal intubation and the effectiveness of decontamination by paramedics (SATIATED): a randomised controlled manikin study. British Paramedic Journal, 4 (1), 14-21.

Pilbery-SolidAirwayTrachealIntubation(VoR).pdf - Published Version
Creative Commons Attribution No Derivatives.

Download (3MB) | Preview
Official URL:
Open Access URL: (Published version)


Introduction: Vomiting and regurgitation are commonly encountered in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), with a reported incidence of 20-30%. This is of concern since patients who have suffered an OHCA are already in extremis. If standard suctioning techniques are not sufficient to maintain a clear airway and provide ventilation, then these patients will die, irrespective of the quality of chest compressions and the timeliness of defibrillation. This study aimed to determine whether a short teaching session of the suction assisted laryngoscopy and airway decontamination (SALAD) technique improved paramedics' ability to successfully intubate a contaminated airway. Methods: A modified airway manikin with the oesophagus connected to a reservoir of 'vomit', and a bilge pump capable of propelling the vomit up into the oropharynx, was used to simulate a soiled airway. The intervention consisted of a brief SALAD training session with a demonstration and opportunity to practice. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups: AAB, who made two pre-training intubation attempts and one post-training attempt, and ABB, who made one pre-training and two post-training attempts, to adjust for improvement in performance due to repetition. Results: In this manikin study, following a brief SALAD training session, more paramedics were able to intubate a soiled airway on their first attempt, compared to those without training (90.2% vs. 53.7%, difference of 36.6%, 95% CI 24-49.1%, p < 0.001). In addition, the mean difference in time taken to perform a successful intubation between groups was statistically significant for attempts 1 and 2 (mean difference 11.71 seconds, 95% CI 1.95-21.47 seconds, p = 0.02), but not attempts 1 and 3 (mean difference -2.52 seconds, 95% CI -11.64-6.61 seconds, p = 0.58). This result is likely to be confounded by the use of tracheal suction, which only occurred in the post-training attempts and added additional time to the intubation attempts. There was no statistically significant difference in success rates on the third attempt between AAB and ABB (89.0% vs. 86.6%, difference 2.4%, 95% CI 7.6-12.4%, p = 0.63). Conclusion: In this study, the use of the SALAD technique significantly improved first attempt success rates when paramedics were intubating a simulated soiled airway.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: airway obstruction; emergency medical services; intubation
Identification Number:
Page Range: 14-21
SWORD Depositor: Symplectic Elements
Depositing User: Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited: 17 May 2022 12:44
Last Modified: 12 Oct 2023 12:02

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics