Effect of long‐term maximum strength training on explosive strength, neural and contractile properties

BALSHAW, Thomas G., MASSEY, Garry J., MADEN-WILKINSON, Tom, LANZA, Marcel B. and FOLLAND, Jonathan P. (2022). Effect of long‐term maximum strength training on explosive strength, neural and contractile properties. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports.

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Official URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/sms.14...
Open Access URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/s... (Published version)
Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.14120


The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare explosive strength and underpinning contractile, hypertrophic and neuromuscular activation characteristics of long-term maximum strength trained (LT-MST; i.e. ≥3 years of consistent, regular knee extensor training) and untrained individuals. Sixty-three healthy young men (untrained [UNT] n=49, and LT-MST n=14) performed isometric maximum and explosive voluntary, as well as evoked octet knee extension contractions. Torque, quadriceps and hamstring surface EMG were recorded during all tasks. Quadriceps anatomical cross-sectional area (QACSAMAX; via MRI) was also assessed. Maximum voluntary torque (MVT; +66%) and QACSAMAX (+54%) were greater for LT-MST than UNT ([both] P<0.001). Absolute explosive voluntary torque (25-150 ms after torque onset; +41 to +64%; [all] P<0.001; 1.15≤ effect size [ES]≤2.36;) and absolute evoked octet torque (50 ms after torque onset; +43, P<0.001; ES=3.07) were greater for LT-MST than UNT. However, relative (to MVT) explosive voluntary torque was lower for LT-MST than UNT from 100-150 ms after contraction onset (-11% to -16%; 0.001≤P≤0.002; 0.98≤ES≤1.11). Relative evoked octet torque 50 ms after onset was lower (-10%; P<0.001; ES=1.14) and octet time to peak torque longer (+8%; P=0.001; ES=1.18) for LT-MST than UNT indicating slower contractile properties, independent from any differences in torque amplitude. The greater absolute explosive strength of the LT-MST group was attributable to higher evoked explosive strength, that in turn appeared to be due to larger quadriceps muscle size, rather than any differences in neuromuscular activation. In contrast, the inferior relative explosive strength of LT-MST appeared to be underpinned by slower intrinsic/evoked contractile properties.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Sport Sciences; 1106 Human Movement and Sports Sciences; 1116 Medical Physiology
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.14120
SWORD Depositor: Symplectic Elements
Depositing User: Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited: 10 Jan 2022 14:23
Last Modified: 24 Jan 2022 16:00
URI: https://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/29587

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