The antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of a controlled gentamicin-releasing single-layer sol-gel coating on hydroxyapatite-coated titanium

NICHOL, Tim, CALLAGHAN, Jill, TOWNSEND, Robert, STOCKLEY, Ian, HATTON, Paul V, LE MAITRE, Christine, SMITH, Thomas John and AKID, Robert (2021). The antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility of a controlled gentamicin-releasing single-layer sol-gel coating on hydroxyapatite-coated titanium. The Bone & Joint Journal, 103-B (3), 522-529.

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Aims The aim of this study was to develop a single-layer hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel coating that is capable of a controlled antibiotic release for cementless hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium orthopaedic prostheses. Methods Coatings containing gentamicin at a concentration of 1.25% weight/volume (wt/vol), similar to that found in commercially available antibiotic-loaded bone cement, were prepared and tested in the laboratory for: kinetics of antibiotic release; activity against planktonic and biofilm bacterial cultures; biocompatibility with cultured mammalian cells; and physical bonding to the material (n = 3 in all tests). The sol-gel coatings and controls were then tested in vivo in a small animal healing model (four materials tested; n = 6 per material), and applied to the surface of commercially pure HA-coated titanium rods. Results The coating released gentamicin at > 10 × minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for sensitive staphylococcal strains within one hour thereby potentially giving effective prophylaxis for arthroplasty surgery, and showed > 99% elution of the antibiotic within the coating after 48 hours. There was total eradication of both planktonic bacteria and established bacterial biofilms of a panel of clinically relevant staphylococci. Mesenchymal stem cells adhered to the coated surfaces and differentiated towards osteoblasts, depositing calcium and expressing the bone marker protein, osteopontin. In the in vivo small animal bone healing model, the antibiotic sol-gel coated titanium (Ti)/HA rod led to osseointegration equivalent to that of the conventional HA-coated surface. Conclusion In this study we report a new sol-gel technology that can release gentamicin from a bioceramic-coated cementless arthroplasty material. In vitro, local gentamicin levels are in excess of what can be achieved by antibiotic-loaded bone cement. In vivo, bone healing in an animal model is not impaired. This, thus, represents a biomaterial modification that may have the potential to protect at-risk patients from implant-related deep infection.

Item Type: Article
Identification Number:
Page Range: 522-529
SWORD Depositor: Symplectic Elements
Depositing User: Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited: 04 Mar 2021 11:42
Last Modified: 17 Mar 2021 14:00

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