On the Benefits of Using Object-Oriented Programming for the Objective Evaluation of Vehicle Dynamic Performance in Concurrent Simulations

PERRELLI, Michele, COSCO, Francesco, CARBONE, Giuseppe, LENZO, Basilio and MUNDO, Domenico (2021). On the Benefits of Using Object-Oriented Programming for the Objective Evaluation of Vehicle Dynamic Performance in Concurrent Simulations. Machines, 9 (2), p. 41.

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Official URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2075-1702/9/2/41
Open Access URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2075-1702/9/2/41/pdf (Published version)
Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9020041


Assessing passenger cars’ dynamic performance is a critical aspect for car industries, due to its impact on the overall vehicle safety evaluation and the subjective nature of the involved handling and comfort metrics. Accordingly, ISO standards, such as ISO 4138 and ISO 3888, define several specific driving tests to assess vehicle dynamics performance objectively. Consequently, proper evaluation of the dynamic behaviour requires measuring several physical quantities, including accelerations, speed, and linear and angular displacements obtained after instrumenting a vehicle with multiple sensors. This experimental activity is highly demanding in terms of hardware costs, and it is also significantly time-consuming. Several approaches can be considered for reducing vehicle development time. In particular, simulation software can be exploited to predict the approximate behaviour of a vehicle using virtual scenarios. Moreover, motion platforms and detail-scalable numerical vehicle models are widely implemented for the purpose. This paper focuses on a customized simulation environment developed in C++, which exploits the advantages of object-oriented programming. The presented framework strives to perform concurrent simulations of vehicles with different characteristics such as mass, tyres, engine, suspension, and transmission systems. Within the proposed simulation framework, we adopted a hierarchical and modular representation. Vehicles are modelled by a 14 degree-of-freedom (DOF) full-vehicle model, capable of capturing the dynamics and complemented by a set of scalable-detail models for the remaining sub-systems such as tyre, engine, and steering system. Furthermore, this paper proposes the usage of autonomous virtual drivers for a more objective evaluation of vehicle dynamic performances. Moreover, to further evaluate our simulator architecture’s efficiency and assess the achieved level of concurrency, we designed a benchmark able to analyse the scaling of the performances with respect to the number of different vehicles during the same simulation. Finally, the paper reports the proposed simulation environment’s scalability resulting from a set of different and varying driving scenarios.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 0903 Biomedical Engineering
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.3390/machines9020041
Page Range: p. 41
SWORD Depositor: Symplectic Elements
Depositing User: Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited: 26 Feb 2021 14:38
Last Modified: 17 Mar 2021 14:30
URI: https://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/28237

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