Multiscale Regulation of the Intervertebral Disc: Achievements in Experimental, in Silico, and Regenerative Research

BAUMGARTNER, Laura, WUERTZ-KOZAK, Karin, LE MAITRE, Christine L., WIGNALL, Francis, RICHARDSON, Stephen M., HOYLAND, Judith, RUIZ WILLS, Carlos, GONZÁLEZ BALLESTER, Miguel A., NEIDLIN, Michael, ALEXOPOULOS, Leonidas G. and NOAILLY, Jérôme (2021). Multiscale Regulation of the Intervertebral Disc: Achievements in Experimental, in Silico, and Regenerative Research. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22 (2), e703.

ijms-22-00703.pdf - Published Version
Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB) | Preview
Open Access URL: (Published version)
Link to published version::


Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a major risk factor of low back pain. It is defined by a progressive loss of the IVD structure and functionality, leading to severe impairments with restricted treatment options due to the highly demanding mechanical exposure of the IVD. Degenerative changes in the IVD usually increase with age but at an accelerated rate in some individuals. To understand the initiation and progression of this disease, it is crucial to identify key top-down and bottom-up regulations’ processes, across the cell, tissue, and organ levels, in health and disease. Owing to unremitting investigation of experimental research, the comprehension of detailed cell signaling pathways and their effect on matrix turnover significantly rose. Likewise, in silico research substantially contributed to a holistic understanding of spatiotemporal effects and complex, multifactorial interactions within the IVD. Together with important achievements in the research of biomaterials, manifold promising approaches for regenerative treatment options were presented over the last years. This review provides an integrative analysis of the current knowledge about (1) the multiscale function and regulation of the IVD in health and disease, (2) the possible regenerative strategies, and (3) the in silico models that shall eventually support the development of advanced therapies.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ** From MDPI via Jisc Publications Router ** Licence for this article: **Journal IDs: eissn 1422-0067 **History: published 12-01-2021; accepted 24-12-2020
Uncontrolled Keywords: intervertebral disc, extracellular matrix, disc cell molecular biology, multifactorial cell stimulation, intervertebral disc degeneration, regenerative medicine, multiscale modeling, computational multiphysics, computational systems biology
Identification Number:
Page Range: e703
SWORD Depositor: Colin Knott
Depositing User: Colin Knott
Date Deposited: 18 Jan 2021 15:32
Last Modified: 17 Mar 2021 16:30

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item


Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics