Cheddar cheese : Its texture, chemical composition and rheological properties.

HORT, Joanne. (1997). Cheddar cheese : Its texture, chemical composition and rheological properties. Doctoral, Sheffield Hallam University (United Kingdom)..

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Procedures associated with Quantitative Descriptive Analysis were used to identify and subsequently train a panel to quantify the perceived textural attributes of Cheddar cheese. Seventeen types of Cheddar were assessed by the panel for creaminess, crumbliness (fingers), crumbliness (chewing), firmness, graininess, hardness (first bite), hardness (cutting), and springiness. Cluster and Principal Component analyses of the sensory data revealed that the cheese samples could be subdivided into young, mature and extra mature Cheddars in terms of the textural attributes measured. The panel was also able to distinguish between the low fat and genuine Cheddars.The percentage fat, moisture and salt contents and the pH level of the seventeen Cheddar samples were established. An inverse correlation between fat and moisture content and a positive correlation between pH level and salt content were observed. The rheological properties were measured using three tests performed on an Instron Universal Testing Machine - a compression test, a cutting test and a stress relaxation test - and, where appropriate, were reported in terms of true stress and true (Hencky) strain curves. The viscoelastic properties of Cheddar observed during stress relaxation tests were modeled using a Generalised Maxwellian model consisting of two exponential elements and a residual term. Considerable variation in all the rheological properties was observed amongst the Cheddar samples. The rheological parameters did not distinguish between the samples to the same extent as the sensory assessment. However, Cluster Analysis of the rheological data did differentiate between the rheological profiles of the young (mild & medium) and the remaining mature/extra mature samples.The relationships between the textural attributes and the chemical and rheological parameters were investigated. No relationship between chemical composition and texture was identified, but correlations between the rheological parameters and the textural attributes were not uncommon. Multiple regression techniques were employed to construct mathematical models to predict the textural attributes from the rheological data. Successful models were constructed utilising parameters from the compression and cutting tests for all the attributes apart from creaminess. More precise models were constructed for firmness, springiness and crumbliness (fingers) where the action of the instrumental test from which the rheological parameters were obtained resembled the test method used by the panel.The chemical, textural and rheological properties of an English Cheddar were determined at various stages during its ripening period to investigate any changes that occurred. A slight increase in pH was the only chemical change recorded. Progressive changes in the majority of the textural attributes were observed. The most dramatic changes included a decrease in springiness and an increase in creaminess. A changing rheological profile was also observed during maturation, a decreasing strain at fracture being the most notable development. The sequence of changes in both the textural and rheological properties was divided into three fairly distinct phases, the initial stage reflecting the developments necessary before the cheese would be suitable for retail sale and the final stage including the development of the necessary textural attributes characteristic of a Mature English Cheddar. It was evident that the timing of the maturation period was pertinent to the development of textural attributes characteristic of particular maturities of Cheddar cheese. The textural attributes of the maturing Cheddar were also predicted at each stage of maturation using the mathematical models constructed in the initial study. Accurate predictions were made for all the attributes except crumbliness (chewing) and graininess.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Additional Information: Thesis (Ph.D.)--Sheffield Hallam University (United Kingdom), 1997.
Research Institute, Centre or Group - Does NOT include content added after October 2018: Sheffield Hallam Doctoral Theses
Depositing User: EPrints Services
Date Deposited: 10 Apr 2018 17:20
Last Modified: 26 Apr 2021 11:55

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