Different forms of heroin and their relationship to cook-up techniques : data on, and explanation of, use of lemon juice and other acids

STRANG, John, KEANEY, Francis, BUTTERWORTH, Gihan, NOBLE, Alison and BEST, David (2001). Different forms of heroin and their relationship to cook-up techniques : data on, and explanation of, use of lemon juice and other acids. Substance Use and Misuse, 36 (5), 573-588.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/JA-100103561
Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.1081/JA-100103561
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    Abstract

    Recent reports of the use of lemon juice in the preparation of heroin for injection have failed to recognize the importance of the different forms of heroin (in the form of the salt or the base) and the impact of this on the chemical manipulation required before injection. One hundred and four opiate addicts in London were interviewed about the forms of heroin (white, brown, etc.) and their relationship to cook-up techniques (use of heat and acid). White heroin was typically prepared with water and heat; brown heroin was prepared with acid (citric acid or Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) or lemon juice) and heat; pharmaceutical heroin was prepared with water only (i.e. neither acid nor heat). On the last occasion of heroin use, brown heroin had been the form most commonly used, with over 90% of the sample using citric acid or vitamin C. Lemon juice was rarely used, and heat was almost universally applied in conjunction with lemon juice.

    Item Type: Article
    Research Institute, Centre or Group - Does NOT include content added after October 2018: Law and Criminology Research Group
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1081/JA-100103561
    Page Range: 573-588
    Depositing User: Hilary Ridgway
    Date Deposited: 17 Feb 2015 09:38
    Last Modified: 18 Mar 2021 09:30
    URI: http://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/9426

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