Identification of the reactive metabolites of fenclozic acid in bile duct cannulated (BDC) rats

MARTIN, Scott, LENZ, Eva A., KEENE, Warren and CLENCH, Malcolm R. (2014). Identification of the reactive metabolites of fenclozic acid in bile duct cannulated (BDC) rats. Analytical Chemistry, 86 (22), 11281-11289.

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Fenclozic acid (MyalexTM) was developed by ICI pharmaceuticals in the 1960s for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and was a promising compound with a good preclinical safety profile and efficacy. Whilst it did not show adverse hepatic effects in preclinical animal tests or initial studies in man[1, 2] it was later withdrawn from clinical development. Hepatotoxicity was observed in humans at daily doses of 400 mg but was not replicated in any of the animal species tested. Rodrigues et al (2013)[3] published a mechanistic investigation using modern in vitro assays/techniques in order to investigate the hepatotoxicity, however, only the covalent binding in rat, dog and human microsomes was identified as a potential indicator for hepatoxicity. Metabolites associated with or responsible for covalent binding could not be detected, likely due to the low in vitro metabolic turnover of fenclozic acid in microsomes. Foulkes (1970)[4] investigated the in vivo metabolism of fenclozic acid which included a rat BDC study characterising the biliary and urinary metabolites, however no reactive metabolites were identified. This study aimed to re-investigate the in vivo metabolism of fenclozic acid in rat, with a focus on identifying any reactive metabolites that could explain the in vitro covalent binding in microsomes observed across the species. Using modern analytical techniques we were successful in identifying an epoxide reactive metabolite, which upon conjugation with GSH formed up to 16 GSH-related products including positional and diastereoisomers. Not including the GSH related conjugates 7 additional metabolites were identified compared to these previous metabolism studies.

Item Type: Article
Research Institute, Centre or Group - Does NOT include content added after October 2018: Biomedical Research Centre
Identification Number:
Page Range: 11281-11289
Depositing User: Louise Vickers
Date Deposited: 05 Nov 2014 13:01
Last Modified: 18 Mar 2021 10:45

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