The relationship between the use and effectiveness of imagery: an exploratory investigation

WEINBERG, R., BUTT, J., KNIGHT, B., BURKE, K. L. and JACKSON, A. (2003). The relationship between the use and effectiveness of imagery: an exploratory investigation. Journal of applied sport psychology, 15 (1), 26-40.

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The major purposes of the present investigation were (a) to enhance the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ) by adding an effectiveness component to the already existing frequency component; (b) to assess when, and under what conditions, imagery is being employed by athletes; and (c) to conduct an exploratory analysis of the impact of gender and type of sport on imagery use. Participants were 523 athletes from both individual and team sports at two NCAA Division I universities. They all completed the SIQ, Imagery Use Questionnaire (IUQ) and an open-ended questionnaire assessing their imagery use. Results revealed that both the revised SIQ and IUQ had high internal consistency reliability. Results from the IUQ as well as the open-ended questionnaire, revealed that athletes used imagery predominantly before competition. Open-ended findings revealed that athletes also used imagery in tough/difficult situations where pressure was high. Results are discussed in terms of previous imagery and socialization literature, and practical implications as well as future research directions are offered.

Item Type: Article
Research Institute, Centre or Group - Does NOT include content added after October 2018: Centre for Sport and Exercise Science
Identification Number:
Page Range: 26-40
Depositing User: Ann Betterton
Date Deposited: 24 Dec 2008
Last Modified: 18 Mar 2021 21:45

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