ALLEN, Tom, IBBITSON, James and HAAKE, Steve (2011). Spin generation during an oblique impact of a compliant ball on a non-compliant surface. *Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology*, **226** (2), 86-95.

## Abstract

Oblique impacts between a ball and surface are a key part of many sports. Previous work has shown that a ball can slide, over-spin or roll at the end of an impact, depending on impact conditions. Inbound spin ratio was analysed to determine if it could be used to identify what is likely to happen at the end of impact for all sports regardless of surface, ball type, impact velocity, angle and spin. A predictive model, in the form of a finite element model, of a tennis ball was validated against experimental data for oblique impacts with inbound spin ratios in the range of –1 to 1. Spin ratio is defined as the product of the ball’s angular velocity and radius divided by the centre of mass velocity tangential to the surface. The finite element model was then used to determine the effect of impact conditions and ball parameters on outbound spin ratio. The study showed that for constant inbound spin ratio, outbound spin ratio was dependent on inbound velocity and angle. For constant inbound velocity and angle, decreasing the mass and increasing the stiffness of the ball through a change in material properties resulted in an increase in the maximum outbound spin ratio. Inbound spin ratio can be used to predict how a ball will rebound from a surface; however, inbound velocity and angle must be constant. Spin ratio can therefore be used to compare the impact characteristics for different ball and surface scenarios.

Item Type: | Article |
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Research Institute, Centre or Group: | Centre for Sports Engineering Research |

Identification Number: | 10.1177/1754337111430444 |

Depositing User: | Carole Harris |

Date Deposited: | 09 Jul 2012 10:21 |

Last Modified: | 09 Jul 2012 10:21 |

URI: | http://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/5518 |

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