Gene and environmental risk factors: interplay between CNR1 genetic variants cannabis use, childhood trauma and psychosis [abstract only]

LOUREIRO, C., CORSI-ZUELLI, F., FACHIM, H., SHUHAMA, R., MENEZES, P.R., DALTON, Caroline, LOUZADA-JUNIOR, P., BELANGERO, S.I., COELI-LACCHINI, F., REYNOLDS, G.P., LACCHINI, R. and DEL-BEN, C.M. (2022). Gene and environmental risk factors: interplay between CNR1 genetic variants cannabis use, childhood trauma and psychosis [abstract only]. Neuroscience Applied, 1 (Supp 2): 100565.

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Background: Cannabis use and childhood trauma have been proposed as environmental risk factors for psychosis and its known that gene-environment (G×E) interactions increase the risk of psychosis [1]. In particular, a recent finding suggests a link between genetic variants in the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CNR1) gene, which encodes CB1 receptors and is expressed widely in the central and peripheral systems, and cannabis playing a role in the multifactorial pathogenesis of psychosis [2]. However, how the genetic variants interact with lifetime cannabis use and other environmental risk factors, such as childhood trauma, underlying psychosis remains challenging. Objective: To investigate whether there are associations of gene and environmental factors with psychosis, as well as G×E interactions in the relationship between lifetime cannabis use, childhood trauma, and single nucleotide variants (SNVs) of CNR1 and psychosis in a Brazilian sample. Methods: In a population-based case-control study nested in an incident study (STREAM, Brazil) [3], part of the WP2 EU-GEI consortium, 143 first-episode psychosis patients (FEPp) and 286 community-based controls of both sexes, aged between 16 and 64 years, were included over a period of three years. Thirteen SNVs of CNR1 gene (rs806380, rs806379, rs1049353, rs6454674, rs1535255, rs2023239, rs12720071, rs6928499, rs806374, rs7766029, rs806378, rs10485170, rs9450898), were genotyped from peripheral blood DNA using a custom Illumina HumanCoreExome-24 BeadChip genotyping arrays (GWAS Cardiff chip). Environmental adversities were evaluated using the Cannabis Experience and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaires. Data were analysed using a binary logistic regression model (Adj OR, 95% CI), including a binary outcome (community-based controls and FEPp), adjusted by sex, age, skin colour, years of education and tobacco smoking. Genotype frequencies were analysed under the dominant model (homozygous ancestral x heterozygous + homozygous variant). The significance level was set at α≤0.05. Results: Lifetime cannabis use and childhood trauma increased the risk for psychosis (OR=3.7; 2.6-6.195% CI, p<0.001; OR=3.0; 1.9-4.7 95% CI, p<0.001, respectively). We also showed that the presence of CNR1 rs12720071-T-allele moderated the association between lifetime cannabis use and psychosis (OR=6.0; 2.0-17.5 95% CI; p=0.001). Moreover, the combination of CNR1 rs12720071-T-allele carriers with childhood trauma also suggests a change in the risk of psychosis (OR=3.6; 1.4-9.0 95% CI; p=0.006). No significant associations between the environmental factors and other SNVs were found. Conclusions: We demonstrated a significant interaction between CNR1 rs12720071 SNV and two important environmental risk factors in their association with psychosis. T allele carriers of CNR1 rs12720071 had a higher risk of psychosis when lifetime cannabis use or childhood trauma were present. Our results suggest a G×E interaction involving the CNR1 gene, trauma and cannabis in psychosis. We will explore the associations between genetic and epigenetic markers of the CNR1 gene with environmental factors in larger and longer follow-up cohorts to better understand the mechanisms of endocannabinoid system dysfunction in the etiology of psychosis.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ** Article version: VoR ** From Elsevier via Jisc Publications Router ** Licence for VoR version of this article starting on 24-12-2022: **Journal IDs: issn 27724085 **History: issued 31-12-2022; published_online 24-12-2022
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SWORD Depositor: Colin Knott
Depositing User: Colin Knott
Date Deposited: 11 Jan 2023 10:54
Last Modified: 12 Oct 2023 08:15

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