Nicotinamide reverses deficits in puberty-born neurons and cognitive function after maternal separation.

HAO, Keke, WANG, Huiling, ZHANG, Yuejin, XIE, Xinhui, HUANG, Huan, CHEN, Cheng, XU, Shilin, XU, Rui, SHU, Chang, LIU, Zhongchun, ZHOU, Yuan, REYNOLDS, Gavin and WANG, Gaohua (2022). Nicotinamide reverses deficits in puberty-born neurons and cognitive function after maternal separation. Journal of neuroinflammation, 19: 232.

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Official URL: https://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/artic...
Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-022-02591-y (Published version)
Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-022-02591-y
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    Abstract

    Background Early life stress (ELS) is associated with the development of schizophrenia later in life. The hippocampus develops significantly during childhood and is extremely reactive to stress. In rodent models, ELS can induce neuroinflammation, hippocampal neuronal loss, and schizophrenia-like behavior. While nicotinamide (NAM) can inhibit microglial inflammation, it is unknown whether NAM treatment during adolescence reduces hippocampal neuronal loss and abnormal behaviors induced by ELS. Methods Twenty-four hours of maternal separation (MS) of Wistar rat pups on post-natal day (PND)9 was used as an ELS. On PND35, animals received a single intraperitoneal injection of BrdU to label dividing neurons and were given NAM from PND35 to PND65. Behavioral testing was performed. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)/Sirtuin3 (Sirt3)/superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) pathway-related proteins. Results Compared with controls, only MS animals in the adult stage (PND56–65) but not the adolescent stage (PND31–40) exhibited pre-pulse inhibition deficits and cognitive impairments mimicking schizophrenia symptoms. MS decreased the survival and activity of puberty-born neurons and hippocampal NAD+ and Sirt3 expression in adulthood. These observations were related to an increase in acetylated SOD2, microglial activation, and significant increases in pro-inflammatory IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 expression. All the effects of MS at PND9 were reversed by administering NAM in adolescence (PND35–65). Conclusions MS may lead to schizophrenia-like phenotypes and persistent hippocampal abnormalities. NAM may be a safe and effective treatment in adolescence to restore normal hippocampal function and prevent or ameliorate schizophrenia-like behavior.

    Item Type: Article
    Uncontrolled Keywords: Hippocampus; Neurons; Animals; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Niacinamide; NAD; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; Bromodeoxyuridine; Interleukin-6; Maternal Deprivation; Cognition; Sexual Maturation; Sirtuin 3; Schizophrenia; Early life stress; Maternal separation; Cognitive impairment; Neuroinflammation; Neuronal loss; Nicotinamide; Sirt3; Cognitive impairment; Early life stress; Maternal separation; Neuroinflammation; Neuronal loss; Nicotinamide; Schizophrenia; Sirt3; Animals; Bromodeoxyuridine; Cognition; Hippocampus; Interleukin-6; Maternal Deprivation; NAD; Neurons; Niacinamide; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Sexual Maturation; Sirtuin 3; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; Neurology & Neurosurgery; 1103 Clinical Sciences; 1107 Immunology; 1109 Neurosciences
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-022-02591-y
    SWORD Depositor: Symplectic Elements
    Depositing User: Symplectic Elements
    Date Deposited: 25 Oct 2022 16:03
    Last Modified: 25 Oct 2022 16:03
    URI: https://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/30947

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