Melting behaviour of simulated radioactive waste as functions of different redox iron-bearing raw materials

RIGBY, Jessica, DIXON, Derek, CUTFORTH, Derek, MARCIAL, Jose, KLOUZEK, Jaroslav, POKORNY, Richard, KRUGER, Albert, SCRIMSHIRE, Alex, BELL, Anthony and BINGHAM, Paul (2022). Melting behaviour of simulated radioactive waste as functions of different redox iron-bearing raw materials. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 569: 153946.

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Official URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/...
Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2022.153946
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    Abstract

    Improved understanding of the mechanisms by which foaming occurs during vitrification of high-level radioactive waste feeds prior to operation of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant at the Hanford Site, USA, will help to obviate operational issues and reduce the duration of the clean-up project by enhancing the feed-to-glass conversion. The HLW-NG-Fe2 high-iron simulated waste feed has been shown to exhibit excessive foaming, and the most recent predictive models overestimate the feed melting rate. The influence of delivering iron as a Fe2+-bearing raw material (FeC2O4·2H2O), rather than a Fe3+ (Fe(OH)3) material, was evaluated in terms of the effects on foaming during melting, to improve understanding of the mechanisms of foam production. A decrease of 50.0 ± 10.8 % maximum generated foam volume is observed using FeC2O4·2H2O as the iron source, compared with Fe(OH)3. This is determined to be due to a large release of CO2 before the foam onset temperature (the temperature above which the liquid phases forming are sufficiently viscous to trap the gases) and suppression of O2 evolution during foam collapse. Structural analyses of simulated waste feeds after different stages of melting show that the remaining Fe2+ in the modified feed is oxidised to Fe3+ at temperatures between 600 and 800 ℃. This feed was tested in a Laboratory Scale Melter with no excessive foaming or feeding issues. Analysis of the final glass products indicates that the glasses produced using the original HLW-NG-Fe2 feed using Fe(OH)3 and the feed made with FeC2O4·2H2O are structurally similar but not identical: the difference in the structure converges when the glass is melted for 24 hours, suggesting a transient structure slightly different to that of the baseline in the glass produced using the reduced raw material.

    Item Type: Article
    Uncontrolled Keywords: 0912 Materials Engineering; Energy
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnucmat.2022.153946
    SWORD Depositor: Symplectic Elements
    Depositing User: Symplectic Elements
    Date Deposited: 27 Jul 2022 16:22
    Last Modified: 02 Aug 2022 10:21
    URI: http://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/30517

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