The Phytochemistry, Ethnobotanical, and Pharmacological Potentials of the Medicinal Plant-Vernonia amygdalina L. (bitter Leaf)

UGBOGU, Eziuche A., EMMANUEL, Okezie, DIKE, Emmanuel D., AGI, Grace O., UGBOGU, Ositadimma C., IBE, Chibuike and IWEALA, Emeka J. (2021). The Phytochemistry, Ethnobotanical, and Pharmacological Potentials of the Medicinal Plant-Vernonia amygdalina L. (bitter Leaf). Clinical Complementary Medicine and Pharmacology.

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    Background Vernonia amygdalina is traditionally used to treat a variety of diseases including diarrhoea, fungal and bacterial infections, inflammation, cancer, diabetes, and its squeezed juice can be applied on wounds. Objective This study reviewed the phytochemistry, ethnopharmacological, and pharmacological potentials of Vernonia amygdalina. Methods Literature search of relevant papers (1994-2021) were performed using ScienceDirect, Springer, Wiley and PubMed databases. For this review study, only publications written in English were utilized. Results The bioactive compounds extracted from Vernonia amygdalina includes 6β,10β,14β trimethylheptadecan-15 α-olyl-15-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-1,5 β olide, glucuronolactone, 11 α-hydroxyurs-5,12-dien-28-oic acid-3 α,25-olide, 10-geranilanyl-O-β-D-xyloside, 1-heneicosenol O-β-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin, luteolin (3´,4´,5,7tetrahydroxyflavone), vernolide, hydroxyvernolide, 3′-deoxyvernodalol , vernodalol, diterpene (ingenol-3-angelate), vernomygdin, 4-methylumbelliferone, cephantharin, cryptolepine, isocryptolepine, neocryptolepine, courmarins, vernolepin, and vernoniosides. Various in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that V. amygdalina and its bioactive components possess pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, antidiarrheal, anti-diabetic, and neuroprotective activities. Conclusion This review demonstrated that V. amygdalina possess therapeutic effects against a wide variety of diseases. The efficacy of V. amygdalina in ameliorating diseases is attributed to its antioxidant activity and ability to improve the antioxidant system. Despite the vast pharmacological activities of V. amygdalina, more human clinical trials are needed to identify effective and safe doses for treatment of various diseases.

    Item Type: Article
    Additional Information: ** Article version: AM ** From Elsevier via Jisc Publications Router ** Licence for AM version of this article starting on 05-10-2021: **Journal IDs: issn 27723712 **History: issued 08-10-2021
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    SWORD Depositor: Colin Knott
    Depositing User: Colin Knott
    Date Deposited: 13 Oct 2021 11:58
    Last Modified: 13 Oct 2021 12:00

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