Effects of manipulating specific individual constraints on performance outcomes, emotions, and movement phase durations in Rugby Union place kicking.

POCOCK, Chris, BEZODIS, Neil E, DAVIDS, Keith and NORTH, Jamie S (2021). Effects of manipulating specific individual constraints on performance outcomes, emotions, and movement phase durations in Rugby Union place kicking. Human Movement Science, 79, p. 102848.

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Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2021.102848


Place kicks present valuable opportunities to score points in Rugby Union, contributing almost half of all points scored at international level. From an ecological dynamics perspective, place kickers adapt to interacting task, environmental, and individual constraints in performance environments. The aim of this study was to analyse effects of specific manipulations of individual constraints (fatigue; expectation for success) on place kicking performance, movement phase durations, heart rate and self-reported emotions. Under representative task and environmental constraints on an outdoor training pitch, 12 experienced, male place kickers completed four testing sessions under every combination of manipulated high/low expectation for success and manipulated levels of high/low acute fatigue. Within each session of 12 place kicks, performance outcomes from three kicking locations of varying difficulty were recorded. ANOVA revealed a two-way interaction between fatigue and expectation manipulations on mean success percentage (p < 0.05), with higher success under low fatigue + low expectation (M ± SD = 58 ± 13%) and high fatigue + high expectation (M ± SD = 56 ± 14%), compared with separate manipulations of high expectation (M ± SD = 49 ± 14%) or high fatigue (M ± SD = 51 ± 14%). There were no significant effects on any movement phase durations. Manipulating expectation significantly heightened mean heart rate (p < 0.05) and influenced emotions reported by place kickers, including higher anger scores when there was high expectation for success. Coaches are encouraged to integrate place kicking into representative game scenarios in practice environments to faithfully represent key performance constraints (e.g. fatigue; expectation for success) in preparing kickers for competitive situations.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Constraints manipulations; Ecological dynamics; Expectation; Fatigue; Place kick; Practice environments; Experimental Psychology; 09 Engineering; 11 Medical and Health Sciences; 17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2021.102848
Page Range: p. 102848
SWORD Depositor: Symplectic Elements
Depositing User: Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited: 04 Aug 2021 10:15
Last Modified: 20 Jan 2023 01:18
URI: https://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/28909

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