Learning from previous lockdown measures and minimising harmful biopsychosocial consequences as they end: A systematic review

MUEHLSCHLEGEL, P.A., PARKINSON, E.A.J., CHAN, R.Y.L., ARDEN, Madelynne and ARMITAGE, C.J. (2021). Learning from previous lockdown measures and minimising harmful biopsychosocial consequences as they end: A systematic review. Journal of Global Health, 11.

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Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.7189/jogh.11.05008
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    Abstract

    Background Infectious outbreaks, most recently coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have required pervasive public health strategies, termed lockdown measures, including quarantine, social distancing, and closure of workplaces and educational establishments. Although evidence analysing immediate effects is expanding, repercussions following lockdown measures remain poorly understood. This systematic review aims to analyse the biopsychosocial consequences after lockdown measures end according to short, medium, and long-term impacts. Methods PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched from inception to January 12, 2021. Reference lists were manually reviewed. Eligible studies analysed biopsychosocial functioning after lockdown measures secondary to recent infectious outbreaks ended. Lockdown measures were defined as quarantine, isolation, workplace or educational closures, social or physical distancing, and national or local closure of public institutions deemed non-essential. Studies exclusively researching outcomes during lockdown measures, examined infectious participants, or analysed lockdown measures not pertaining to an infectious outbreak were excluded. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed bias with a third resolving discrepancies. Data was extracted from published reports with further information requested from authors where necessary. The mixed methods appraisal tool assessed study quality, languages were restricted to English, German, Italian, and French and narrative synthesis was applied. Results Of 5149 identified studies, 40 were eligible for inclusion. Psychological distress, economic repercussions, social, biological, and behavioural ramifications were observed. Short to medium-term effects comprised reactions relating to early trauma processing whereas medium to long-term repercussions manifested in maladaptive behaviours and mental health deterioration. Increased alcohol intake, stigmatisation, and economic effects were also identified consequences. High-risk groups included health care workers, children, elderly, inpatients, those with pre-existing psychiatric diagnoses, and socially isolated individuals. Conclusions Supporting vulnerable groups and offering education, workplace modifications, financial, and social assistance may mitigate negative repercussions. Establishing a rapid and comprehensive evidence base appraising the efficacy of such interventions and identifying areas for development is essential. This review was limited by study heterogeneity and lack of randomisation in available literature. Given the unprecedented nature and progression of COVID-19, the relevance of previous outcomes remains uncertain. Protocol registration PROSPERO registration CRD42020181134

    Item Type: Article
    Uncontrolled Keywords: COVID-19; Disease Outbreaks; Humans; Physical Distancing; Public Policy; Quarantine; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Schools; Workplace; Humans; Disease Outbreaks; Quarantine; Public Policy; Schools; Workplace; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; COVID-19; Physical Distancing; 1117 Public Health and Health Services
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.7189/jogh.11.05008
    SWORD Depositor: Symplectic Elements
    Depositing User: Symplectic Elements
    Date Deposited: 30 Jul 2021 15:26
    Last Modified: 30 Jul 2021 15:30
    URI: http://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/28894

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