Determinants of preterm survival in a tertiary hospital in Ghana: a ten-year review

AGBENO, Evans Kofi, OSARFO, Joseph, ASHONG, Joyce, ANANE-FENIN, Betty, OKAI, Emmanuel, OFORI, Anthony, ALIYU, Mohammed, ANINNG OPOKU, Douglas, KEN-AMOAH, Sebastian, ASHONG, Joycelyn and SOLTANI, Hora (2021). Determinants of preterm survival in a tertiary hospital in Ghana: a ten-year review. PLoS One, 16 (1), 0246005.

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    Abstract

    Background Prematurity (gestational age <37 completed weeks) accounts for the majority of neonatal deaths worldwide and most of these occur in the low-resource countries. Understanding factors that determine the best chances of preterm survival is imperative in order to enhance the care of neonates and reduce adverse outcomes in such complicated births. Aim This was to find out the proportions of preterm babies who survived at the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) in the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital (CCTH) and the factors which influenced their survival. Method This was a retrospective review of data on all the live preterm babies seen at the SCBU of CCTH from 2010 to 2019. Data on 2,254 babies that met the inclusion criteria were extracted. Descriptive statistics were generated and tests of association done with chi-square and multivariable logistic regression. Outcome The main outcome measure was the proportion of live preterm neonates who were discharged after SCBU admissions. Results The CCTH had a total of 27,320 deliveries from 2010 to 2019. Of these, 1,282 were live preterm births, giving a prevalence of live preterm babies over the ten-year period of 4.7% (1,282/27,320). An increasing trend in prevalence was observed with 2019 recording the highest at 9% (271/3027). Most (48.8%) of the deliveries were vaginal, 39.2% were by caesarean section (CS); the mode of birth for 12% of the women were not documented. The mean gestational age was 31.8 (±2.77) weeks. Of the birth weights documented, <1000g babies accounted for 11.9%, 1000–1499g babies made up 34.8%, while 1500g to 2499g babies accounted for 42.6%. The babies with weights >2500g made up only 3.7%. The average length of hospital stay was 8.3 (±9.88) days. Regarding the main outcome variable, 67.6% were discharged alive, 27.6% died and 4.9% were unaccounted for due to incomplete documentation. Factors which influenced survival were: birth weight (p <0.001); gestational age (p <0.001); mode and place of delivery (p <0.001 for both); APGAR scores at 1st and 5th minutes (p <0.001); and length of stay at the SCBU (p <0.001). No association was found for sex of the baby, maternal age and parity. Conclusion This study shows the possibility of achieving good preterm survival rates through the provision of specialised neonatal care, even in resource-constrained countries. This provides an updated benchmark for clinical decision-making and antenatal counselling. It also highlights the problem of inadequate data capture in our part of the world, which needs considerable improvement.

    Item Type: Article
    Uncontrolled Keywords: General Science & Technology
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246005
    Page Range: 0246005
    SWORD Depositor: Symplectic Elements
    Depositing User: Symplectic Elements
    Date Deposited: 25 Jan 2021 18:10
    Last Modified: 10 Feb 2021 10:28
    URI: http://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/28031

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