“Doing What Is Right and Doing It Right”: A Mapping Review of Athletes' Perception of Anti-Doping Legitimacy

WOOLWAY, T., LAZURAS, Lambros, BARKOUKIS, V. and PETRÓCZI, A. (2020). “Doing What Is Right and Doing It Right”: A Mapping Review of Athletes' Perception of Anti-Doping Legitimacy. International Journal of Drug Policy, 84, p. 102865.

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Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102865
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    © 2020 Elsevier B.V. Background: The creation of the World Anti-Doping Agency in 1999 and the first implementation of the Anti-Doping Code in 2004 established institutional and legal level legitimacy for the anti-doping movement. Subsequently, a distinct line of research examining athletes’ perceptions of anti-doping has emerged. This study aims to review the literature on legitimacy via athletes’ perceptions of the underpinning values, fairness and effectiveness of anti-doping rules and procedures. Methods: A systematic mapping review with computerised literature search of seven databases (EBSCOHost, PubMed, Ingenta, ScienceDirect, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscuss and Google Scholar) was used, followed by hand-search of reference lists and relevant journals. Based on Tyler's (2006) psychological components of legitimacy (proper, just, and appropriate), a bespoke conceptual map and analytical framework was developed and employed for retrospective categorisation. Results: Thirty-nine studies representing 15,434 participants met the inclusion criteria. About half of the eligible studies discussed legitimacy components without identifying them as such. Identification of studies for legitimacy concepts faced considerable ambiguity in measures and interpretation, particularly in distinguishing between elements of being ‘just’ and ‘appropriate’. Single focus on one aspect was rare but only 11 of the 39 studies included all three elements of perceived legitimacy. Overall, athletes agreed that anti-doping is ‘doing the right thing’ to protect clean sport but their views differed on whether the existing anti-doping system is effective and implemented fairly (i.e., ‘doing anti-doping in a right way’). Owing to the ad hoc measurements and diverse methodology, quantitative meta-analysis was not feasible. Conclusion: Legitimacy is an important concept in anti-doping. Attention to globally equal and fair implementation of testing and sanctioning is warranted. Legitimacy perceptions can be improved by better communication from anti-doping organisations to highlight progress with detection, greater transparency and explicit support for athletes who were affected by doping. Future research requires standardised conceptual framework and measures.

    Item Type: Article
    Uncontrolled Keywords: WADA; World Anti-Doping Code; doping control; doping test; fairness; sport; Substance Abuse; 11 Medical and Health Sciences; 16 Studies in Human Society; 17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102865
    Page Range: p. 102865
    SWORD Depositor: Symplectic Elements
    Depositing User: Symplectic Elements
    Date Deposited: 05 Jan 2021 17:13
    Last Modified: 17 Mar 2021 17:01
    URI: https://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/27896

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