Label-free Quantitative Proteomics and Substrate Based Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes in ex Vivo Human Skin and a Human Living Skin Equivalent Model.

COUTO, Narciso, NEWTON, Jillian R.A., RUSSO, Cristina, KARUNAKARAN, Esther, ACHOUR, Brahim, AL-MAJDOUB, Zubida M., SIDAWAY, James, ROSTAMI-HODJEGAN, Amin, CLENCH, Malcolm R. and BARBER, Jill (2021). Label-free Quantitative Proteomics and Substrate Based Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes in ex Vivo Human Skin and a Human Living Skin Equivalent Model. Drug Metabolism and Disposition.

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Official URL: https://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/early/2020/1...
Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.120.000168
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    Abstract

    We report for the first time label-free quantification of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME), transporters, redox enzymes, proteases and nucleases in six human skin explants and a 3D living skin equivalent model from LabSkin. We aimed to evaluate the suitability of LabSkin as an alternative to animal testing for the development of topical formulations. More than 2000 proteins were identified and quantified from total cellular protein. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C), the most abundant phase I XME in human skin, and glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), the most abundant phase II XME in human skin, were present in similar abundance in LabSkin. Several esterases were quantified and esterase activity was confirmed in LabSkin using substrate-based mass spectrometry imaging. No cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity was observed for the substrates tested, in agreement with the proteomics data, where the cognate CYPs were absent in both human skin and LabSkin. Label-free protein quantification allowed insights into other related processes such as redox homeostasis and proteolysis. For example, the most abundant antioxidant enzymes were thioredoxin (TXN) and peroxiredoxin-1 (PRDX1). This systematic determination of functional equivalence between human skin and LabSkin is a key step towards the construction of a representative human in vitro skin model, which can be used as an alternative to current animal-based tests for chemical safety and for predicting dosage of topically administered drugs. Significance Statement The use of label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to elucidate the abundance of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, transporters, redox enzymes, proteases and nucleases in human skin enhance our understanding of the skin physiology and biotransformation of topical drugs and cosmetics. This will help develop mathematical models to predict drug metabolism in human skin and to develop more robust in vitro engineered human skin tissue as alternatives to animal testing.

    Item Type: Article
    Uncontrolled Keywords: Mass spectrometry (MS); Skin; enzyme; proteomics; Pharmacology & Pharmacy; 1115 Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.120.000168
    SWORD Depositor: Symplectic Elements
    Depositing User: Symplectic Elements
    Date Deposited: 18 Dec 2020 13:15
    Last Modified: 18 Dec 2020 13:15
    URI: http://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/27828

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