The association between cardiovascular function, measured as FMD and CVC, and long-term aquatic exercise in older adults (ACELA study): a cross-sectional study

KLONIZAKIS, Markos, HUNT, Beatrice E. and WOODWARD, Amie (2020). The association between cardiovascular function, measured as FMD and CVC, and long-term aquatic exercise in older adults (ACELA study): a cross-sectional study. Frontiers in Physiology, 11, p. 603435.

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Open Access URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys... (Published version)
Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.603435
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    Abstract

    Introduction: Cardiovascular aging is implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aquatic exercise is being considered as a co-adjuvant form of rehabilitation, but there is limited evidence for its cardiovascular risk-reduction properties for older people. Our study aimed to address this by exploring the cardiovascular effects of long-term aquatic exercise in older adults in comparison to those who are either inactive or engaged in land-based/mixed training by measurement of micro- and macro-circulation. Flow Mediated Dilatation (FMD) was the primary outcome. Methods: This was a pragmatic, 4-group, cross-sectional study. Eighty normotensive adults constituted four (n = 20) groups. The Aqua group (aged 63.7 ± 7 years) and Land group (aged 65 ± 6 years) consisted of participants engaged in aquatic and land-based training, respectively. The mixed group (Mix) (aged 66 ± 6 years) consisted of participants engaged in both land-based and aquatic training. Self-reported training consisted of ≥2/week for ≥6 months (mean sessions/week = 4 ± 1, 4 ± 1, and 5 ± 2 for each group, respectively). The sedentary group (Sed) (aged 63 ± 6 years) consisted of people who were sedentary for ≥6 months (mean sessions/week 0 ± 0). The primary outcome was %FMD. Secondary outcomes included raw cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and CVC max. Results: Statistically significant differences (%FMD, raw CVC variables other than baseline) were found between each of the exercise groups (Aqua, Land, Mix) and the sedentary group (Sed) (i.e., 11.2 (4.2) vs. 5.0 (2.3); p < 0.0005, between the Aqua group and Sed group, for %FMD). No specific advantage could be attributed to any one of the exercise groups. Conclusion: We reported improvements in NO-mediated endothelial function at micro- and macro-circulatory levels, observing no differences between exercise modes. Our findings provide evidence for the role of aquatic exercise as a “shield” against CVD in older populations.

    Item Type: Article
    Uncontrolled Keywords: 0606 Physiology; 1116 Medical Physiology; 1701 Psychology
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.603435
    Page Range: p. 603435
    SWORD Depositor: Symplectic Elements
    Depositing User: Symplectic Elements
    Date Deposited: 16 Nov 2020 17:32
    Last Modified: 03 Dec 2020 16:30
    URI: http://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/27618

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