A fast model predictive control allocation of distributed drive electric vehicles for tire slip energy saving with stability constraints

GUO, Ningyuan, ZHANG, Xudong, ZOU, Yuan, LENZO, Basilio, ZHANG, Tao and GÖHLICH, Dietmar (2020). A fast model predictive control allocation of distributed drive electric vehicles for tire slip energy saving with stability constraints. Control Engineering Practice, 102, p. 104554.

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Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conengprac.2020.104554
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    Abstract

    Abstract This paper proposes a fast model predictive control allocation (MPCA) approach to minimize the tire slip power loss on contact patches for distributed drive electric vehicles (DDEV). In this strategy, two assumptions are set up from a practical focus: (1) the vehicle acceleration and yaw rate are measurable by global position system (GPS)/ inertial navigation system (INS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU), respectively; (2) the longitudinal velocity, road adhesion factor, and vehicle yaw rate are arranged to be “already known” by advanced estimators. For the strategy design, a CarSim-embedded driver model and a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based direct yaw moment controller, are respectively applied to calculate the desired longitudinal traction and yaw moment as a virtual input first. Then, a MPCA method is proposed to reasonably distribute the virtual input among four in-wheel motors in order to optimize the tire slip power loss and vehicle stability performance. To accurately characterize tire slip power loss in MPCA, a tire slip estimator is established for tire slip information acquirement. Moreover, addressing on the heavily computational challenge in MPCA, a modified continuation/generalized minimal residual (C/GMRES) algorithm is employed. Since the traditional C/GMRES algorithm cannot directly solve the inequality constraint problem, the barrier functions are applied for transforming the inequality constraints to equivalent cost. According to Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP) conditions, the existence and uniqueness for solution of the modified C/GMRES algorithm are strictly proved. Subsequently, a Karush–Kuhn–Tucker​ (KKT) condition based approach is developed to fast gain the optimally initial solution in C/GMRES algorithm for extending application. Finally, numerical simulation validations are implemented and demonstrate that the proposed MPCA can ensure the compatibility between the tire slip power loss reduction and vehicle stability in a computationally efficient way.

    Item Type: Article
    Additional Information: ** Article version: AM ** Embargo end date: 14-07-2021 ** From Elsevier via Jisc Publications Router ** Licence for AM version of this article starting on 14-07-2021: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ **Journal IDs: issn 09670661 **History: issue date 30-09-2020; published_online 14-07-2020; accepted 07-07-2020
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conengprac.2020.104554
    Page Range: p. 104554
    SWORD Depositor: Colin Knott
    Depositing User: Colin Knott
    Date Deposited: 17 Jul 2020 16:11
    Last Modified: 20 Jul 2020 09:05
    URI: http://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/26652

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