Estimation of the temperature in the stirred zone and cooling Rate of friction stir welding of EH46 Steel from TiN Precipitates

AL-MOUSSAWI, Montadhar, SMITH, Alan, FARAJI, Masoumeh and CATER, Stephen (2019). Estimation of the temperature in the stirred zone and cooling Rate of friction stir welding of EH46 Steel from TiN Precipitates. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A.

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Official URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11661...
Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-019-05383-x
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    Abstract

    Measuring the peak temperature in the contact region of the tool/workpiece in friction stir 11 welding (FSW) is difficult using conventional methods such as use of thermocouples or a 12 thermal imaging camera, hence an alternative method is required to tackle this problem. The 13 objective of the present work was to estimate more accurately, for the first time, the peak 14 temperature and cooling rate of FSW from precipitation of TiN in friction stir welded steel 15 samples. Microstructures of nine friction stir welded samples of high strength shipbuilding 16 steel of EH46 grade were examined closely by SEM-EDS to detect the TiN precipitates. 17 Thermal heat treatments using an accurate electrical digital furnace were also carried out on 18 80 unwelded EH46 steel samples over a range of temperatures and cooling rates. Heat 19 treatments were to create a basis to understand TiN precipitation behavior under various 20 heating and cooling regimes for the studied alloy. Heat treatment showed that TiN particles 21 can precipitate at a peak temperature exceeding 1000°C and the size of TiN precipitates 22 particles increases with decreasing cooling rate. In a temperature range between 1100-1200°C 23 the TiN precipitates were accompanied by other elements such as Nb, S, Al and V. Pure TiN 24 particles were found after the peak temperature exceeded 1250°C with limited precipitation 25 after reaching a peak temperature of 1450°C. The comparison between the friction stir 26 welding samples and the heat treatments in terms of types and sizes of TiN precipitates 27 suggests that the welding peak temperature should have been in the range of 1200-1350°C 28 with a cooling rate in the range of 20-30 K/sec. The current work represents a step change in 29 estimating the friction stir welding temperature and cooling rate which are difficult to 30 determine using thermocouples and thermal imaging camera.

    Item Type: Article
    Uncontrolled Keywords: Materials; 0912 Materials Engineering; 0306 Physical Chemistry (incl. Structural); 0913 Mechanical Engineering
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-019-05383-x
    SWORD Depositor: Symplectic Elements
    Depositing User: Symplectic Elements
    Date Deposited: 13 Aug 2019 15:10
    Last Modified: 10 Sep 2019 11:18
    URI: http://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/24994

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