Benefits of outdoor sports for society. A systematic literature review and reflections on evidence

EIGENSCHENK, Barbara, THOMANN, Andreas, MCCLURE, Mike, DAVIES, Larissa, GREGORY, Maxine, DETTWEILER, Ulrich and INGLÉS, Eduard (2019). Benefits of outdoor sports for society. A systematic literature review and reflections on evidence. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16 (6).

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Official URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/6/937/htm
Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060937

Abstract

The combination of physical activity and being in nature is recognized as providing a range of significant benefits. The objective of this literature review was to compile an overview of the social benefits and costs associated with outdoor sports within the academic literature and to reflect on the quality of underlying evidence that supports the relationship. A systematic review was carried out with seven partners from different European countries, including Bulgaria, France, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. From a total of 17,560 studies identified, 133 studies were selected with relevant data extracted to standardized forms. The selected studies have been analyzed with qualitative research methods. A meta-analysis could not be conducted due to the heterogeneity of the study designs and outcome measures. As a result, the review gives an overview of the social impacts associated with outdoor sports which have been clustered to six broad categories: physical health, mental health and wellbeing, education and lifelong learning, active citizenship, crime reduction, and anti-social behavior, as well as additional benefits. The review furthermore revealed gaps in the evidence base which are especially notable in the long-term effects that outdoor sports can have on personal and social development.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ** From MDPI via Jisc Publications Router ** Licence for this article: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ **Journal IDs: eissn 1660-4601 **History: published 15-03-2019; accepted 08-03-2019
Uncontrolled Keywords: outdoor sports, outdoor recreation, health enhancing physical activity, social benefits and costs or social impacts, outdoor education
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060937
SWORD Depositor: Louise Beirne
Depositing User: Louise Beirne
Date Deposited: 20 Mar 2019 12:19
Last Modified: 10 Apr 2019 14:15
URI: http://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/24253

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