The effect of manipulating individual consequences and training demands on experiences of pressure with elite disability shooters

STOKER, Mike, MAYNARD, Ian, BUTT, Joanne, HAYS, Kate and HUGHES, Paul (2019). The effect of manipulating individual consequences and training demands on experiences of pressure with elite disability shooters. The sport psychologist.

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Official URL: https://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/abs/10.1123...
Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2017-0045

Abstract

In previous research, multiple demands and consequences were manipulated simultaneously to examine methods for pressure training (Stoker et al., 2017). Building on literature, in this study a single demand or consequence stressor was manipulated in isolation. Specifically, in a matched, within-subject design, six international shooters (Mage = 28.67) performed a shooting task whilst exposed to a single demand (task, performer, environmental) or consequence (reward, forfeit, judgment) stressor. Perceived pressure, anxiety (intensity and direction), and performance was measured. Compared to baseline, manipulating demands did not affect pressure or anxiety. In contrast, pressure and cognitive anxiety significantly increased when judgment or forfeit consequence stressors were introduced. Thus, the findings lack support for manipulating demands but strongly support introducing consequences when pressure training. Compared to baseline, the judgment stressor also created debilitative anxiety. Hence, in terms of introducing a single stressor, judgment appeared most impactful and may be most effective for certain athlete populations.

Item Type: Article
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2017-0045
SWORD Depositor: Symplectic Elements
Depositing User: Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited: 20 Mar 2019 10:11
Last Modified: 10 Apr 2019 13:30
URI: http://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/24251

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