A simulation study assessing the accuracy and reliability of orchidometer estimation of testicular volume

ELDER, Charlotte J., LANGLEY, Joe, STANTON, Andrew, DE SILVA, Shamani, AKBARIAN-TEFAGHI, Ladan, WALES, Jerry K. H. and WRIGHT, Neil P. (2019). A simulation study assessing the accuracy and reliability of orchidometer estimation of testicular volume. Clinical Endocrinology, 90 (4), 623-629.

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Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.1111/cen.13923


Context Measuring testicular volume (TV) by orchidometer is the standard method of male pubertal staging. A paucity of evidence exists as to its inter‐ and intra‐observer reliability and the impact of clinicians’ gender, training and experience on accuracy. Objective Prosthetic testicular models were engineered to investigate accuracy and reliability of TV estimation. Design Simulation study. Setting Conducted over three‐day 2015 British Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (BSPED) meeting. Participants 215 meeting delegates (161F, 54M): 50% consultants, 30% trainees, 9% clinical nurse specialists, 11% other professionals. Intervention Three child‐sized mannequins displayed latex scrotum containing prosthetic testicles of 3ml, 4ml, 5ml, 10ml and 20ml. Demographic data, paediatric endocrinology experience, TV examination training, examination technique and TV estimations were collected. Delegates were asked to repeat their measurements later during the meeting. Scrotum order was changed daily. Main outcome measure Accuracy by variance from the simulated TV. Inter‐ and intra‐observer variability. Results 1284 individual estimations were obtained. Eighty‐five participants repeated measurements. Delegates measured TV accurately on 33.4% (±2.6) of occasions: overestimations 37.7% (±2.3), underestimations 28.7% (±1.8) (Fleiss Kappa score 0.04). The accuracy of assessing a 4 ml testis was 36‐39%. Observers underestimated the volume when paired with a 3ml testes and overestimated when paired with a 5 ml testis demonstrating a tendency impose biological symmetry. Intra‐observer reliability was lacking; individuals giving different estimations for the same size testicle on 61% (±4.2) of occasions, 20% (±3.5) of estimations were more than 1 size outside the previous measurement. On only 39% (±4.2) of occasions did individuals agree with their previous estimation (irrespective of whether or not it was initially accurate). Training did not impact on results but experience did improve accuracy. Conclusions Overall TV estimation accuracy was poor. Considerable variation exists between and within subjects. Seniority slightly improved measurement estimation.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: ** From Crossref via Jisc Publications Router **Journal IDs: pissn 0300-0664
Uncontrolled Keywords: Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1111/cen.13923
Page Range: 623-629
SWORD Depositor: Margaret Boot
Depositing User: Margaret Boot
Date Deposited: 09 Jan 2019 12:17
Last Modified: 18 Mar 2021 02:56
URI: https://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/23732

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