A study of spectator emotions at the Tour de France

BERRIDGE, Graham, MAY, Daryl, KITCHEN, Eliza and SULLIVAN, Gavin (2019). A study of spectator emotions at the Tour de France. Event management.

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Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856372

Abstract

Research question: This paper contributes to the canon of literature on spectator emotions by examining spectator emotions at a major hallmark event. Research methods: Spectator experience emotions were surveyed via an online questionnaire resulting in 188 valid responses. This resulted in three groups of spectators being surveyed: i) those who watched live from the roadside ii) those watching via a spectator viewing hub and iii) those watching on television. Variables tested were via PANAS scale emotions. They included the positive emotions of interested, excited, strong, enthusiastic, proud, alert, inspired, determined, attentive and active. The negative emotions were distressed, upset, hostile, irritable, scared, nervous, afraid, guilty, ashamed and jittery. There are also nine categories within the model which are (1) attentive, (2) excited, (3) proud, (4) strong, (5) distressed, (6) angry, (7) fearful, (8) guilty and (9) nervous. Results and findings: The highest positive value feelings of ‘Interested, Excited and Enthusiastic’ occurred during the live action by those watching on the roadside. Negative feelings were more variable but a highest rating for ‘Afraid’ increased during the event, suggesting feelings of not wanting to miss anything (action). Further exploration of the emotions experienced before, during and after an event is required in order to more fully understand the complexity of the factors. Implications: For those planning and staging cycling and similar multi-stage or multi-site events the mapping (route) and layout of the active spectator and participant arena can be carefully constructed to provide potential emotional hot spots. Emotions vary across time and this appears to be related to mode and location of spectating. It implies that event organisers can utilise different ‘experiential components’ within an event setting to create conditions that would be conducive to an optimal viewing environment.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Affective experiences; spectator emotions; Tour de France; sports events impacts; optimal viewing environment
Research Institute, Centre or Group - Does NOT include content added after October 2018: Sheffield Business School Research Institute > Service Sector Management
Departments - Does NOT include content added after October 2018: Sheffield Business School > Department of Service Sector Management
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599519X15506259856372
Depositing User: Daryl May
Date Deposited: 23 May 2018 08:47
Last Modified: 15 May 2019 10:45
URI: http://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/21303

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