The effects of gamma-irradiation on additives in food-contact polymers.

SMITH, Christine. (1989). The effects of gamma-irradiation on additives in food-contact polymers. Doctoral, Sheffield Hallam University (United Kingdom)..

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Abstract

A range of antioxidants (BHT, Irganox 1010, 1076, 1330 and Irgafos 168) were incorporated into polymers (polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride) and subjected to increasing doses of gamma-irradiation (1,5,10,20,25,35 and 50 kGy) from a cobalt-60 source.The amount of extractable antioxidant from the stabilised polymers was determined chromatographically and a gradual diminution in the total extractable levels of each antioxidant was observed as irradiation progressed, the extent depending on the nature of both the antioxidant and the polymer 2,6-Di-t-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone was shown to be an extractable degradation product, arising from the effects of gamma-irradiation on the phenolic antioxidants. The extractable degradation product arising from the phosphite antioxidant, Irgafos 168, was identified as tris(2,4-di-t-butylphenyl)phosphate. It was demonstrated using 14C-labelled Irganox 1076 that degradation products formed during gamma-irradiation are becoming covalently bound to the polymer, as a result of radical coupling processes. There is a pronounced increase in the extent of covalent binding from 0.4% before irradiation to a minimum of 12.4% after an exposure to 50 kGy. Evidence has also been presented of covalent binding of the degradation product of Irgafos 168 to the polypropylene matrix, via polymeric radicals formed during irradiation. Finally, the effects of gamma-irradiation on the extent of migration of antioxidants from polyolefins into food simulants was studied. It was found that irradiation leads to a decrease in the extent to which hindered phenolic antioxidants migrate from polyolefins into fatty media, consistent with the reduction in extractable antioxidant levels and the increase in the extent of antioxidant-polymer binding.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Additional Information: Thesis (Ph.D.)--Sheffield Hallam University (United Kingdom), 1989.
Research Institute, Centre or Group: Sheffield Hallam Doctoral Theses
Depositing User: EPrints Services
Date Deposited: 10 Apr 2018 17:22
Last Modified: 10 Apr 2018 17:22
URI: http://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/20370

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