Organic/carbon nanotubes hybrid thin films for chemical detection.

BANIMUSLEM, Hikmat Adnan. (2015). Organic/carbon nanotubes hybrid thin films for chemical detection. Doctoral, Sheffield Hallam University (United Kingdom)..

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Metallophthalocyanines (MPcs) are classified as an important class of conjugated materials and they possess several advantages attributed to their unique chemical structure. Carbon nanotubes (CNT), on the other hand, are known to enhance the properties of nano-composites in the conjugated molecules, due to their one dimensional electronic skeleton, high surface area and high aspect ratio. In this thesis, work has been carried out on the investigation of different substituted metal-phthalocyanines with the aim of developing novel hybrid film structures which incorporates these phthalocyanines and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) for chemical detection applications. Octa-substituted copper phthalocyanines (CuPcR[8]) have been characterised using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Obtained spectra have yielded an evidence of a thermally induced molecular reorganization in the films. Influence of the nature of substituents in the phthalocyanine molecule on the thin films conductivity was also investigated. Octa-substituted lead (II) phthalocyanines (PbPcR[8]) have also been characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy. Sandwich structures of ITO/PbPcR[8]/In were prepared to investigate the electronic conduction in PbPcR[8]. The variation in the J(V) behavior of the films as a result of heat treatment is expected to be caused by changes in the alignment inside the columnar stacking of the molecules of the films. Thin films of non-covalently hybridised SWCNT and tetra-substituted copper phthalocyanine (CuPcR[4]) molecules have been produced. FTIR, DC conductivity, SEM and AFM results have revealed the [mathematical equation]; interaction between SWCNTs and CuPCR[4] molecules and shown that films obtained from the acid-treated SWCNTs/CuPcR[4] hybrids demonstrated more homogenous surface. Thin films of pristine CuPCR[4] and CuPcR[4]/S WCNT were prepared by spin coating onto gold-coated glass slides and applied as active layers for the detection of benzo[a]pyrene, pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2-chlorophenol, diuron and simazine in water as well as amines vapours in ambient air utilizing total internal reflection spectroscopic ellipsometry (TIRE) as an optical detection method. Different concentrations of pesticides in water ranging from 1 to 25 mug/L have been examined. It was revealed that the shifts in [mathematical equation] spectra of CuPcR[4]SWCNT films were evidently larger than those produced by the pristine CuPcR[4] films, indicating largely improved films' sensitivity of the hybrid films. Adsorption of amines onto films' surfaces has been realised by monitoring changes in the phase shift [mathematical equation] of TIRE. Methylamine has shown higher sensitivity and lower response time among the studied amines. For all amines vapours, the sensitivity of SWCNT/CuPcR[4] hybrid films was higher than the sensitivity of pristine Cu[1]PCR[4] films. Further work has been carried out on hybrids of SWCNT with zinc phthalocyanines (ZnPc). Thin films of pristine SWCNT and SWCNT/ZnPc hybrids were prepared by drop casting onto interdigitated electrodes and applied as active layers to detect ammonia vapor by measuring electrical resistance changes. Influence of pyrene substituent in the phthalocyanine ring on the hybrid formation and their sensor response has also been verified.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Additional Information: Thesis (Ph.D.)--Sheffield Hallam University (United Kingdom), 2015.
Research Institute, Centre or Group: Sheffield Hallam Doctoral Theses
Depositing User: EPrints Services
Date Deposited: 10 Apr 2018 17:18
Last Modified: 10 Apr 2018 17:18

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