Ginseng and ginkgo biloba effects on cognition as modulated by cardiovascular reactivity: a randomised trial

ONG LAI TEIK, Derek, LEE, Xiao Shiang, LIM, Chu Jian, LOW, Chia Mei, MUSLIMA, Mariyam and AQUILI, Luca (2016). Ginseng and ginkgo biloba effects on cognition as modulated by cardiovascular reactivity: a randomised trial. PLOS ONE, 11 (3), e0150447.

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Official URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.137...
Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150447
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    Abstract

    Background There is some evidence to suggest that ginseng and Ginkgo biloba can improve cognitive performance, however, very little is known about the mechanisms associated with such improvement. Here, we tested whether cardiovascular reactivity to a task is associated with cognitive improvement. Methodology/Principal findings Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design, participants (N = 24) received two doses of Panax Ginseng (500, 1000 mg) or Ginkgo Biloba (120, 240 mg) (N = 24), and underwent a series of cognitive tests while systolic, diastolic, and heart rate readings were taken. Ginkgo Biloba improved aspects of executive functioning (Stroop and Berg tasks) in females but not in males. Ginseng had no effect on cognition. Ginkgo biloba in females reversed the initial (i.e. placebo) increase in cardiovascular reactivity (systolic and diastolic readings increased compared to baseline) to cognitive tasks. This effect (reversal) was most notable after those tasks (Stroop and Iowa) that elicited the greatest cardiovascular reactivity during placebo. In males, although ginkgo also decreased cardiovascular readings, it did so from an initial (placebo) blunted response (i.e. decrease or no change from baseline) to cognitive tasks. Ginseng, on the contrary, increased cardiovascular readings compared to placebo. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that cardiovascular reactivity may be a mechanism by which ginkgo but not ginseng, in females is associated with certain forms of cognitive improvement.

    Item Type: Article
    Additional Information: Trial Registration - ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02386852 PLOS
    Departments - Does NOT include content added after October 2018: Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities > Department of Psychology, Sociology and Politics
    Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150447
    Page Range: e0150447
    Depositing User: Luca Aquili
    Date Deposited: 08 Nov 2016 15:58
    Last Modified: 18 Mar 2021 04:09
    URI: http://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/13986

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