Improvement of composition of CdTe thin films during heat treatment in the presence of CdCl2

DHARMADASA, I, ECHENDU, O. K., FAUZI, F., ABDUL-MAFAF, N. A., OLUSOLA, O. I., SALIM, H.I., MADUGU, M.L and OJO, A.A. (2016). Improvement of composition of CdTe thin films during heat treatment in the presence of CdCl2. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 1-10.

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Link to published version:: 10.1007/s10854-016-5802-9

Abstract

CdCl2 treatment is a crucial step in development of CdS/CdTe solar cells. Although this rocessing step has been used over a period of three decades, full understanding is not yet achieved. This paper reports the experimental evidence for improvement of composition of CdTe layers during CdCl2 treatment. This investigation makes use of four selected analytical techniques; Photo-electro-chemical (PEC) cell, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CdTe layers used were electroplated using three Cd precursors; CdSO4, Cd(NO3)2 and CdCl2. Results show the improvement of stoichiometry of CdTe layers during CdCl2 treatment through chemical reaction between Cd from CdCl2 and elemental Te that usually precipitate during CdTe growth, due to its natural behaviour. XRD and SEM results show that the low-temperature (~85ºC) electroplated CdTe layers consist of ~(20-60) nm size crystallites, but after CdCl2 treatment, the layers show drastic recrystallisation with grains becoming a few microns in size. These CdCl2 treated layers are then comparable to high temperature grown CdTe layers by the size of grains.

Item Type: Article
Research Institute, Centre or Group: Materials and Engineering Research Institute > Thin Films Research Centre > Electronic Materials and Sensors Research Group
Identification Number: 10.1007/s10854-016-5802-9
Depositing User: Helen Garner
Date Deposited: 13 Oct 2016 16:47
Last Modified: 07 Dec 2016 19:17
URI: http://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/13795

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