Porosity in ion-exchanged and acid activated clays evaluated using n-nonane pre-adsorption

RIBEIRO CARROTT, M.M.L., CANSADO, I.P.P., CARROTT, P.J.M., RUSSO, P.A., CASTILHO, P., FERNANDES, C., CATRINESCU, C. and BREEN, Christopher (2016). Porosity in ion-exchanged and acid activated clays evaluated using n-nonane pre-adsorption. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 232, 238-247.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2016.06.030
Link to published version:: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2016.06.030


The applicability of the n-nonane pre-adsorption method for characterising the porosity in clays is presented. Na-SD, a Na+-exchanged purified bentonite, and materials obtained by Al3+-exchange and acid treatments of Na-SD and SAz-1 were used. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms, at −196 °C, were determined before and after n-nonane pre-adsorption on each of the samples. In all materials, n-nonane remained adsorbed in ultramicropores after outgassing at 25 °C. Outgassing at higher temperatures (50, 75 and 200 °C) removed nonane and ultramicropores became available for nitrogen adsorption. All treatments on Na-SD led to increase in micropore volume. Larger ultramicropore and supermicropore volumes were obtained for Na-SD acid activated with HCl at 95 °C than for treatments at 25 °C with HCl or following Al3+-exchange (Al-SD), and increased with increasing acid concentration to 3 M. Activation with 4 M HCl led to the largest pore volume with contribution from mesopores. However, the specific external surface area was the same as that obtained for Na-SD, Al-SD and for most of the other acid activated samples. Treatments at 95 °C with 1 M and 6 M HCl promoted increase in specific external surface area. The micropore volumes and specific external surface area for SAz-1 treated with 1 M HCl at 95 °C were larger than those of Al-SAz-1, but lower than those obtained for corresponding materials derived from Na-SD. The n-nonane pre-adsorption method enabled micropore volumes and specific external surface areas to be obtained for all samples.

Item Type: Article
Research Institute, Centre or Group - Does NOT include content added after October 2018: Materials and Engineering Research Institute > Advanced Coatings and Composites Research Centre > Polymers, Composites and Spectroscopy Group
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2016.06.030
Page Range: 238-247
Depositing User: Helen Garner
Date Deposited: 01 Aug 2016 13:36
Last Modified: 18 Mar 2021 11:31
URI: https://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/13090

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