Indexing Bob Cranky : social meaning and the voices of pitmen and keelmen in early nineteenth-century Tyneside song

HERMESTON, Rodney (2014). Indexing Bob Cranky : social meaning and the voices of pitmen and keelmen in early nineteenth-century Tyneside song. Victoriographies, 4 (2), 156-180.

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Link to published version:: 10.3366/vic.2014.0168

Abstract

This article examines the social meanings (indexical relations) of Tyneside dialect spoken by pitmen and keelmen in early nineteenth-century Tyneside dialect songs. I focus on the pitman Bob Cranky. Pieces about Bob and other pitmen and keelmen emerge from a song culture enjoyed by audiences of clerks, artisans, and shopkeepers. A debate emerged from the 1970s as to whether Bob is a subject of satire who could not appeal to a ‘working man’, or whether pitmen and keelmen derived self-celebration from him. Recently, the perspective of self-celebration has dominated. The songs, northern dialect literature more broadly, and dialect itself are said to promote communal values, regional, local, and ‘working-class’ solidarity, and populism. I show that pitmen and keelmen are most closely associated in the songs with non-standard spellings and with expletives. Employing a notion of dialogism, I argue that the meaning of the songs and the language attributed to pitmen or keelmen depends on the attitudes of audiences towards their behaviour, and towards nineteenth-century discourses of ‘respectability’ and ‘correct’ language. Bob and his speech may be the subjects of satirical mockery, resistance to respectability, or self-celebration. The material also has potential to convey labouring-class and regional solidarity.

Item Type: Article
Research Institute, Centre or Group: Humanities Research Centre
Identification Number: 10.3366/vic.2014.0168
Depositing User: Rodney Hermeston
Date Deposited: 30 Jun 2015 11:45
Last Modified: 20 Aug 2015 18:19
URI: http://shura.shu.ac.uk/id/eprint/10717

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